Key terms

The terms below are taken from the ‘Lexicon’ in the TEEBAgriFood ‘Scientific and Economic Foundations’ report.

agri-food (as in system): a subset of eco-agri-food in which ecological considerations (e.g. impacts and dependencies upon natural capital) are often left out

capital: the economic framing of the various stocks in which each type of capital embodies future streams of benefits that contribute to human well-being (see also ‘stock’ as well as ‘human capital’, ‘natural capital’, ‘produced capital’ and ‘social capital’)

consumption: the final of four stages in the value chain, including purchases of food for consumption within the household, purchases of food supplied by restaurants and the hospitality industry more generally, and consumption of food grown at home

distribution, marketing and retail: the third of four stages in the value chain, including the activities associated with the transport and sale of goods, for example to retailers or consumers

driver: a flow which arises from the activities of agents (i.e. governments, corporations, individuals) in eco-agri-food value chains, resulting in significant outcomes and leading to material impacts

eco-agri-food (as in system): a descriptive term for the vast and interacting complex of ecosystems, agricultural lands, pastures, inland fisheries, labor, infrastructure, technology, policies, culture, traditions, and institutions (including markets) that are variously involved in growing, processing, distributing and consuming food

ecosystem service: the contributions that ecosystems make to human well-being (e.g. classified by CICES into provisioning, regulation & maintenance and cultural)

externality: a positive or negative consequence of an economic activity or transaction that affects other parties without this being reflected in the price of the goods or services transacted

feedback (loop): a process whereby an initial cause ripples through a chain of causation, ultimately to re-affect itself

flow: a cost or benefit derived from the use of various capital stocks (categorized into agricultural and food outputs, purchased inputs, ecosystem services and residuals)

Framework, TEEBAgriFood Evaluation: an approach for describing and classifying the range of outcomes/impacts for a given scope and value chain boundary, and caused by specified drivers, that answers the question “what should be evaluated?”

human capital: the knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic well-being

impact: a positive or negative contribution to one or more dimensions (environmental, economic, health or social) of human well-being

manufacturing and processing: the second of four stages in the value chain, including the operations involved in converting raw materials into finished products

marketing: (see ‘distribution, marketing and retail’)

natural capital: the limited stocks of physical and biological resources found on earth, and of the limited capacity of ecosystems to provide ecosystem services

outcome: a change in the extent or condition of the stocks of capital (natural, produced, social and human) due to value-chain activities

processing: (see ‘manufacturing and processing’)

produced capital: all manufactured capital, such as buildings, factories, machinery, physical infrastructure (roads, water systems), as well as all financial capital and intellectual capital (technology, software, patents, brands, etc.)

production: the first of four stages in the value chain, including activities and processes occurring within farm gate boundaries (including the supply of ecosystem services, the supply of goods and services, and connections between producers)

retail: (see ‘distribution, marketing and retail’)

social capital: encompasses networks, including institutions, together with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups

stock: the physical or observable quantities and qualities that underpin various flows within the system, classified as being produced, natural, human or social (see also ‘capital’)

system: a set of elements or components that work together and interact as a whole

systems thinking: an approach that focuses on the identification of interrelationships between components of a system

theory of change: a basis for planning intervention in a given policy or project arena that helps to identify processes and preconditions whereby actions can best attain their intended consequences

value: the worth of a good or service as determined by people’s preferences and the tradeoffs they choose to make given their scarce resources, or the value the market places on an item

value chain: the full range of processes and activities that characterize the lifecycle of a product from production, to manufacturing and processing, to distribution, marketing and retail, and finally to consumption (including waste and disposal across all stages)

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